This species was almost fifty percent larger than its closest relatives. Brachypsalis sp. One mustelid, Ekorus ekakeran, lived about six million years ago in what is now Africa, with fossils found in Kenya. Musteloids occupy nearly all continents, inhabit latitudes from the arctic to the sub-antarctic, and the superfamily is arguably the most species-rich in the Carnivora. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. The width-to-length ratio of the lower 1st molar, which showed no significant correlation with the length of the molar in either the 50 largest sea mink (r = 0.041, P = 0.78) or the museum American mink (r = −0.0093, P = 0.95), was significantly larger in the largest sea mink (t = −4.21, d.f. Hydrictis maculicollis (7).—AMNH 51825 (female); AMNH 82402, 89807, 89808, 239613 (male); AMNH 86710, 119955 (sex unknown). Its status as a separate species has not been resolved. Dental structures also are implicated in mating, food acquisition, and food processing, the last 2 of which are important components of the ecological niche. It is also possible that the sea mink evolved at some point after the glaciers receded, in response to newly available resources along the North Atlantic coast. The distribution of ml in the archaeological mink mandibles was bimodal (Anderson-Darling test for normality, A = 5.37, P = 2.4 × 10−13), and the 2 groups identified were completely nonoverlapping (Fig. The rugged shorelines of the Down East region of Maine may have represented a northernmost barrier in their range. Possibly the first description of this species was made by Sir Humphrey Gilbert [22] Males were more often collected than females.[4]. Although it seems antedated by Lutreola, I follow the taxonomy of Wozencraft (2005). In addition, t-ests or ANCOVAs were performed where appropriate to test hypotheses about divergence between sea mink and American mink in individual measurements or measurement ratios. [4], The sea mink was pursued by fur traders due to its large size; this made it more desirable than other mink species further inland. The sea mink was hunted to extinction in the latter part of the 19th century, even before it was taxonomically described or scientifically studied (Black et al. This last morphological character may have contributed to the decision of Prentiss (1903) to name the sea mink Lutreola macrodon. F) Differences between the sea mink and American mink measurements were comparable to differences between species pairs of Mustelinae, such as the ermine and American mink (Manhattan metric 0.88). Lutra lutra (6).—AMNH 32257, 240918 (female); AMNH 206592 (male); AMNH 92, 1294, 184947 (sex unknown). A larger relative of the American mink (N. vison), it inhabited the shores of New England and possibly the Canadian Maritime Provinces until it was hunted to extinction in the 19th century. 1998; Campbell 1988; Hollister 1965; Seton 1926; Youngman 1989). Their body was flatter than that of the American mink. “The Sea of Slaughter” was published in 1984. 4 Marine Mammals That Have Vanished From The Seas - WorldAtlas Type locality “Brook-lin, Hancock County, Maine.”. The European mink (Mustela lutreola), also known as the Russian mink and Eurasian mink, is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to Europe.. Scientific Name: Mustela macrodon Taxonomy Group: Mammals COSEWIC Range: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Atlantic Ocean COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2000 COSEWIC Status: Extinct COSEWIC Status Criteria: COSEWIC Reason for Designation: The last verified specimen was killed in New Brunswick in 1894. To determine the degree of dental divergence that would be expected for closely related species, pairs of recently diverged species in the related genus Mustela were analyzed. Accounts from Native Americans in the New England/Atlantic Canadian regions reported that the sea mink had a fatter body than the American mink. Vermeij listed a date of “about 1900.” Monachus tropicalis : Knudtson ( 67 ) noted that the last authenticated sighting was in 1952 on Serranilla Bank in the western Caribbean. Because dental structures show comparatively little phenotypic plasticity (Wood and Lieber-man 2001), differences in dental morphology at the population level suggest long-term genetic isolation. Manville, Richard H. 1966. 3A). Other species include: 1 = Mustela erminea; 2 = M.frenata; 3 = M. nigripes; 4 = M. putorius; 5 = Aonyx cinerea; 6 = Lutra lutra; 7= Hydrictis maculicollis; 8 = Pteronura brasiliensis; 9 = Plesiogulo sp. Note also that the decade value refers to the 10 y following the date given (i.e., 2000 is the period 2000–2009 inclusive). Thus, in agreement with both Nowak (1999) and Wozencraft (2005), this study supports recognition of the sea mink (N. macrodon) as a species separate from N. vison. One hundred mink mandibular samples and 11 mink maxillary samples were sufficiently well preserved for use in this analysis ( Appendix I). When the mean value for the American mink and the mean of the 50 largest sea mink were plotted separately against each of the smallest 25 archaeological specimens, some of these specimens, such as MSM 299354; B), produced a pattern quite similar to that of the American mink (Manhattan distance of 0.33 from mean Neovison vison, 0.79 from mean largest N. macrodon), whereas others, such as MSM 299526; C), produced a pattern similar to that of the larger sea mink (Manhattan distance of 1.01 from mean N. vison, 0.37 from mean largest N. macrodon). The morphological distance between N. macrodon and N. vison, as assessed by dental proportions, was comparable to the distance between pairs of known musteloid species in the same subfamily. To test the reliability of the measurements, triplicate analyses of the same photographs were performed days or weeks apart. Extinct animals belonging to the Coastal biome go in this category. ; 10 = Aonyx capensis; 11 = Arctonyx collaris; 12 = Eira barbara; 13 = Gulo gulo; 14 = Ictonyx striatus; 15 = Lontra canadensis; 16 = Martes americana; 17 = Meles meles; 18 = Mellivora capensis; 19 = Mephitis mephitis; 20 = Mydaus javanensis; 21 = Taxidea taxus. Sea Mink. Molecular analyses of the sea mink would be useful to determine the approximate time of divergence between N. vison and N. macrodon, and to elucidate where and how N. macrodon may have evolved. They were also more robust and broader in appearance. = 75.54, P = 6.9 × 10−5). The sea mink was seldom sighted after 1860. Although it is called the sea mink, it was not truly a marine animal. These values were near the upper limit of the size range for ml in the museum specimens of N. vison (6.32–9.08 mm; Fig. [21] A possible mounted sea mink specimen collected in 1894 in Connecticut measured 72 centimeters (28 in) from head to tail and the tail was 25.4 centimeters (10 in) in length; a 1996 study found this to be either a large American mink or possibly a hybrid. 2A). (2000) obtained individuals of N. vison from nearly the full extent of this species' range, including Alaska, Pacific offshore islands, and the east coast of North America, my study only incorporated specimens from the continental United States and southern Canada (subspecies energumenos, letifera, mink, and vison). The last two recorded kills of a sea mink were made in Maine in 1880 near Jonesport, Maine, and Campobello Island, New Brunswick, in 1894, although the 1894 kill is speculated to be of large American minks. Different types of foods possess different structural properties and are most efficiently processed by teeth of different shapes. It may have exhibited behavior similar to the American mink, in that it probably maintained home ranges, was polygynandrous, and had a similar diet, though more seaward-oriented. Acronyms of measurements are as defined in Fig. The groups considered by Mead et al. (2000). Mead, concluding that the mink was restricted to nearshore islands, suggested that the large size was due to insular gigantism. Type locality “Flagg Island in Casco Bay,” Maine. Each specimen was regressed against both the mean N. vison and the mean of the 50 largest specimens of N. macrodon, as determined by carnassial length. Most sea mink remains, nearly all of them skull fragments, have come from shell middens, but a complete specimen has never been found. Search for other works by this author on: A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of early whales, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Morphological variability of the baculum (os penis) in Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora). According to Graham (2001), the observed differences between sea and American mink were insufficient to consider the sea mink as a separate species. Plesiogulo sp. 2004), the posterior dentition (analyzed in this study) plays little or no role in mating or acquisition of food and tends to be more specialized for food processing (Thom et al. The sea mink was seldom sighted after 1860. Hardy (1903) seems to have been the 1st to connect the archaeological specimens to accounts by locals of a large, reddish-furred mink with a distinctive odor and a fatter body than that of the American mink (Manville 1966; Seton 1926). This measurement was highly correlated with the length of ml in N. vison (Pearson's product-moment correlation of 0.94, using ln-transformed measurements). Rank. Axes 3 and 4 from a principal component analysis of all 7 maxillary measurements from 14 subspecies, species, and genera analyzed in this study, including measurements from 13 additional species reported in Popowics (2003). This last criterion was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation of repeated measurements obtained at different times (see below). (2004) and Van Valkenburgh and Wayne (1994), the length of the carnassial tooth was used as an estimate of body size. I am particularly grateful to Professor A. Mann of Princeton University for his guidance. Where the individuals used for this study were reasonably large and representative samples of their taxa, standard deviations of the measurements are indicated in parentheses. It likely lived in semi-marine environments, such as coastal waters. A) Histogram of ml length, a standard proxy for body size, in the Turner Farm mink mandibles. In N. vison, neither the ratio of upper carnassial blade length to upper carnassial length (r = −0.021, P = 0.89) nor the ratio of upper carnassial width to upper carnassial length (r = −0.12, P = 0.44) showed significant correlation with upper carnassial length. The highly prized fur of the Sea Mink caused hunters to kill every single last one in order to retrieve the fur and make a profit out of it. The specimens larger than the known American mink samples were thought to cluster into 2 different groups based on size, and by sex in the interpretation of Mead et al. It is unusual in the length of time it was used—it has yielded artifacts from more than 5,000 years of habitation, with the most recent dating from the early era of European colonization (Spiess and Lewis 2001). 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