The First Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. The first independent government of Sudan, led by Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari, was quickly replaced by a stalemated coalition of various conservative forces, which was in turn overthrown in the coup d'état of Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Ibrahim Abboud in 1958. After questioning Nimeiry's credentials to Islamicize Sudan's … The war created problems for the government in Khartoum as well. No. It started way before their independence, around the time most other sub-Saharan African nations were getting their independence. The government was unable to take advantage of rebel weaknesses because of their own factionalism and instability. The hostilities between the Northern and Southern regions of the Sudan also involved foreign powers that had their own geopolitical interests in the country. The first Sudanese Civil War, also known as the Anyanya Rebellion (1955-1972) was concluded through a negotiated settlement that provided the South a significant degree of autonomy. The Northern two-thirds of Sudan were overwhelmingly Muslim while Christianity or indigenous religions were most popular in the south. In response, rebels from South Sudan formed the Southern Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), led by John Garang, to fight the central government in Khartoum. The war began a year before Sudan was declared independent from Great Britain. The main actors in the war were the central government of Sudan and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). The first Sudanese civil war is a classic example of intra-regional and inter-regional conflicts in Africa in the 20th century. As the fighting progressed, Southern Sudanese rebels divided into two factions. The origins of the civil war in the south date back to the 1950s. It involved the Sudanese Central Government and the southern Sudan’s People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), amongst others. Southern rebels were fighting for regional autonomy and representation in the government. A twelve-year armed conflict raged between the northern and southern regions of Sudan between 1955 and 1972. Anyone who does not know the many events of history will think that the Sudan crisis started today. One Man’s Selfless Act of Serving Amidst Civil War. They were also the first insurgency to recruit child soldiers. The Second Sudanese Civil war (1983-2005) is widely seen as a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil war, which ended in 1972. Because Northern forces were unable to put down the rebellion, several coups brought about new governments. About the authors. The peace negotiations began in 1986 under Sudanese Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mashdi. In April 1985, a coup occurred. As in the first war, child soldiers were recruited by both sides but were more frequently used by the SPLA. Outraged, the southern soldiers mutinied, killing 336 northerners, both soldiers and civilians. The first Sudanese civil war is a classic example of intra-regional and inter-regional conflicts in Africa in the 20th century. The offer was rejected by the rebels, and the fighting continued. Kiir is a member of the country’s majority ethnic group, the Dinka. Identity based divisions, both between and within the warring sides, characterized both phases – the 1955-1972 “First Sudanese Civil War” and the 1983-1995 “Second Sudanese Civil War” – of what turned out to be an enduring conflict. Eight months later on March 27, 1972, the government in Khartoum and the Southern rebels signed the Addis Ababa Agreement which ended the First Sudanese Civil War. When Sudan attained independence (from Great Britain) in 1956, it inherited a rebellion by southern rebels against Khartoum-based rule. First civil war 1962 - Civil war led by the southern separatist Anya Nya movement begins with north. The Sudan Relief Fund is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Two years later, after attempted assassination by Sudanese communists, Nimeri, on July 19, 1971, renounced socialism and invited foreign investors into Sudan. The mutinies were suppressed, though survivors fled the towns and began an uncoordinated insurgency in rural areas. This study attempts to provide an in-depth investigation and analysis of the political, economic, social, cultural, and religious problems that led to the outbreak of the first civil war in 1955. You have entered an incorrect email address! PLEASE SHARE THIS SO OTHERS CAN KNOW THIS HISTORY! In 1971, former army lieutenant Joseph Lagu formed a successful coup d'état against Gordon Muortat with help from Israel, which pledged him their support. News of the Torit mutiny spread, and southern soldiers across Sudan revolted. Other factors influenced the conflict as well. This war should be referred to as The First Sudanese Civil War. Mediation between the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC), both of which spent years building up trust with the two combatants, eventually led to the Addis Ababa Agreement of March 1972 ending the conflict. The War in Darfur, also nicknamed the Land Cruiser War, is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. Southern Sudan in this time changed their name to the Nile Republic and resumed warfare against Khartoum, however some of the former leader Jaden's troops would not accept a Dinka leader and fought against the Anyanya. Resentment at the military government led to a wave of popular protests that led to the creation of an interim government in October 1964. Since civil war broke out in South Sudan in December 2013, over 50,000 people have been killed—possibly as many as 383,000, according to a recent estimate—and nearly … Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Since Southern Sudanese forces lacked the infrastructure to launch a major offensive against the north, they launched a guerrilla war. toriography on the first civil war in Sudan. On 18 August 1955, members of the British-administered Sudan Defence Force Equatorial Corps mutinied in Torit, and in the following days in Juba, Yei, and Maridi. © Everything Africa | A Member Of The 'Liberty Writers Global' News Platform, Chapters Of History: First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972), Airlift Of 20,000 Ethiopians Jews To Isreal (1984-1991) – Operations Moses, Joshua, And Solomon, The Book Of Negroes – Exodus Of Over 35,000 Blacks From USA In 1783, How German Scientist Used Indigenous African People As Lab Rats In The Early 1900s (Robert Koch), How France Burnt Buildings And Medicine When Guinea Demanded Independence In 1958, Archaeologists Claim Ramses II Was The Pharoah Moses Fought – Says French Stole His Body Parts, William Ansah Sessarakoo: The Slavers Son Who Became Enslaved On His Way TO Europe, History Of Ancient Egypt: The Whip Of The Law, The Amazing History Of Ancient Egyptian Science, Medicine And Astronomy, The Captivating History of War, Blood, And Sand In Ancient Egypt Warfare, Hidden African And African-American History You Must Know, A Detailed Account Of Ancient Egyptian Dynasties – How They Started And Grew, A Brief History Of Ancient Egyptian Art – The Noble Ways Of The Africans That Walked Before Us, History of Ancient Egypt: The Mysterious Doorway That Leads To Eternal Judgement, BBC Documentary Discovers The Original Settlers Of The Americas Had ‘Negroid Features’, Dear “Black Lives Matter” Time To Stand Up For Youths Massacred By Nigerian Army. The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom') was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. On 18 August 1955, members of the British-administered Sudan Defence Force Equatorial Corps mutinied in Torit, and in the following days in Juba, Yei, and Maridi. Vice-President Machar is Nuer, the … By 1969, Anya Nya controlled most of southern Sudan. In-fighting between Marxist and non-Marxist factions in the ruling military class led to another coup in July 1971 and a short-lived administration by the Sudanese Communist Party before anti-Communist factions put Nimeiry back in control of the country. Two civil wars and the formation of one of the world's newest countries still hasn't prevented more fighting. By 1970 the civil war had taken about 500,000 lives, mostly in the South. When the history of Sudan’s third civil war is written, most will judge that the precipitating event occurred on May 21, when the Khartoum regime seized the contested border area of Abyei. All the youths... We are a reporting outfit with interest in African news, business, and events. Nicholas Coghlan was Canada's first diplomat stationed in South Sudan, and as such, was present when a civil war ripped the newly founded country apart in 2013. Culturally, Northern Sudanese people spoke Arabic and identified with Saudi Arabia and North Africa while the Southerners looked to Ethiopia and the newly-independent states of Sub-Saharan Africa. The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom'), was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. Donate now ... We speak often and he shares tales of the violence he witnesses first-hand and the needless hunger inflicted on these poor souls. Another faction, the Anya Nya, was founded and led by Joseph Lagu and was composed mostly of the Madi group. The immediate causes of the mutiny were a trial of a southern member of the national assembly and an allegedly false telegram urging northern administrators in the South to oppress Southerners. The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels) was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. After a succession of governments, that were never able to address the problems of factionalism, economic stagnation, and ethnic division, a group of communist and socialist officers led by Colon… This war should be referred to as The First Sudanese Civil War. He received crucial military support from the Soviet Union. This was controversial even among Muslim groups. In 1971, the rebel group integrated into the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement, or SSLM, the precursor to today’s Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army, or SPLM/A. In December 2013, President Kiir accused his former deputy Riek Machar and ten others of attempting a coup d'état. SCOPAS S. POGGO is an Assistant Professor of African American and African Studies at The Ohio State University, USA. It can be said that the majority of the African countries that were colonized by the British, entered civil wars immediately after the British were asked to leave – gave independence to the African nations. On August 18, 1955, the Equatoria Corps, a military unit composed of southerners, mutinied at Torit. The First Sudanese Civil War is a comprehensive investigation, discussion, and analysis of the origins and development of the first civil war in the Sudan, which occurred between 1955 and 1972. Sudan was declared independent from Great Britain ion January 1, 1956, but the war began a year before the declaration of independence. However, in 1983 President Nimeiri undertook several decisions that abrogated key terms of the agreement, including imposing Shari’a Law across the entire country and abolishing the Southern … In the first civil war, from 1955 to 1972, southern insurgents, called the Anya Nya, fought against GOS for greater autonomy. The Sudan’s civil war, also the first in post-colonial Africa, began, with the Torit Mutiny, a few months before independence was attained on 1 January 1956. The war was brutal. The country of Sudan remained in a tense peace for eleven years until a much larger and bloodier conflict called the Second Sudanese Civil War began in 1983. History Of Black Slave Who Became King In Venezuela – Miguel... How White Mob Lynched Two Black Men In Indiana, 1930. The first attacks by the newly formed Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) under its leader Col John Garang, weredirected against the installations of the Jonglei Canal and oil- exploration companies. He then gathered all the guerilla bands under his Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). 1-888-488-0348 This chronic state of insurgency against the central government was suspended in 1972 after the signing of the Addis Ababa Accords granting southern Sudan wide regional autonomy on internal matters. In 1969, Gordon Muortat Mayen was elected unanimously as the new leader of the South. Civil war was sparked in 1983 when the military regime tried to impose sharia law as part of its overall policy to "Islamicize" all of Sudan. Show all. It discusses the involvement of foreign missionaries and On August 18, 1955, the Equatoria Corps, which was composed mostly of British Colonial soldiers from southern Sudan, attempted to disperse a crowd of protesters in the town of Torit, Sudan (now Torit, South Sudan). Sudan has been in a civil war for about 50 years. The roots of the conflict can be traced to 1953 when the United Kingdom and Egypt agreed that Sudan would become an independent nation in 1956. In 1965, ten years after the civil war began, interim prime minister Muhammad Ahmad Mahgoub offered amnesty to the Southern Sudanese rebels if they would lay down their arms. One group, the Sudan African National Union (SANU), was formed and led by William Deng from the Dinka ethnic group. The southern soldiers, however, appeared to be sympathetic to the protesters, prompting the central government in Khartoum (the capital of Sudan) to replace them with troops from the northern region. Sudan’s first civil war was fought between the Arab-led Khartoum government in the north and rebels in the largely Christian and animist south. The South Sudanese Civil War (15 December 2013 – 22 February 2020) was a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. Chinese Ship Crew Throws Two African Overboard Into Shark Infested Indian... Zimbabwe Is Giving Back Land And $38.8 Million To White Farmers... Remembering The 13 Year Old Self-Taught Inventor From Sierra Leone, Queen Amina Of Zaria: The History Of An Uncommon African Warrioress. This book is a comprehensive investigation, discussion, and analysis of the origins and development of the first civil war in the Sudan, which occurred between 1955 and 1972. The First Sudanese Civil War was a civil war in the African country of Sudan.Between the Muslim North, and Christian South. Sudan was declared independent from Great Britain ion January 1, 1956, but the war began a year before the declaration of independence. The main actors in the war were the central government of Sudan and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). In 1983, as part of an Islamicization campaign President Nimeiry declared his intention to transform Sudan into a Muslim Arab state, divided the south into three regions and instituted Shari’a law. Even as Sudan achieved independence from Britain in 1956, civil war was already brewing between the north and the south. Sudanese Civil Warswere a series of wars and conflicts between the former british colony of Sudanball, and his sonSouth Sudanball. Sudan, country located in northeastern Africa.The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al-sūdān (“land of the blacks”), by which medieval Arab geographers referred to the settled African countries that began at the southern edge of the Sahara. The First Sudanese Civil War was a twelve-year conflict between the northern and southern regions of Sudan between 1955 and 1972. I am a writer who is passionate about Africa and the numerous political, social, cultural and business events that take place in the African continent and beyond. We bring you these pieces of information through our various platforms of which www.libertywritersglobal.com is one. In 1969, General Gaafar Nimeri took control of the Sudanese government and instituted a socialist program which included nationalizing banks and other businesses. It is with a heavy heart that we report the heartless massacre of hundreds of Nigerian youths, by the Fulani-controlled Nigerian army, on Tuesday, 20th, October 2020. Half a million people died over the 17 years of war, which may be divided into three stages: initial guerrilla war, Anyanya, and South Sudan Liberation Movement. The South was first led by the late leader Aggrey Jaden; he left the movement in 1969 due to internal political disputes. Great Britain, Egypt, and the Soviet Union supported the central government while the SSLM was backed by Ethiopia, Uganda, and Israel. After a second military coup on 25 May 1969, Col. Gaafar Nimeiry became Prime Minister and promptly outlawed political parties. An estimated 500,000 people died during the twelve-year conflict. Poorly armed and ill-organized, they w… The First Sudanese Civil War (also known as the Anyanya Rebellion or Anyanya I, after the name of the rebels, a term in the Madi language which means 'snake venom') was a conflict from 1955 to 1972 between the northern part of Sudan and the southern Sudan region that demanded representation and more regional autonomy. The main belligerents in the war were the central government of Sudan and the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM). Classic example of intra-regional and inter-regional conflicts in Africa in the war were the central government of Sudan were Muslim. 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